I. The Stage is Set
A. Pressure for Peace
1. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish inventor who invented dynamite.
2. The struggle for women’s suffrage throughout Europe supported the peace movement.
3. In 1899, the first Universal Peace Conference
brought together leaders of many nations in The Hague in the Netherlands.
was strong in both Germany and France.
2. Germans were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership.
3. In Eastern Europe, Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism called
C. Economic and Imperial Rivalries
1. The British felt threatened by German’s rapid economic growth.
2. By 1900, Germany’s new, modern factories
increasingly out produced Britain’s older ones.
3. Imperialism also divided European nations.
Militarism and the Arms Race
Millenarianism is the glorification of the military.
2. The greater powers expanded their armies and navies because international tensions were growing.
3. The great powers expanded Germany’s armies
and navies as international tensions grew.
E. A Tangle of Alliances
1. Fear and distrust led the great powers to protect
themselves through alliances.
Nation signed treaties pledging to defend each other.
3. The first alliances had their origins on Bismarck’s Day.
II. The Guns of August
A Murder With Millions of
1. In 1914, a small group
of young revolutionaries huddled around a café table in Belgrade, Serbia.
2. June 28 was the fate on which Serbia had been conquered by the Ottoman empire in 1389.
3. Bosnia was still ruled by Austria-Hungary.
B. Peace Unravels
1. Ultimatum is a final set of demands.
2. To mobilize is to prepare its military forces for war.
3. Neutrality is a policy of supporting neither side in a war.
C. Whose Fault?
Each great power believed its cause was just.
2. Austria wanted to punish Serbia for encouraging terrorism.
3. Germany felt that it must stand the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia as an effort to oppress Slavic
III. A New Kind of Conflict
The Western Front
1. On the Western Front, the warring armies burrowed
into a vast system of trenches, stretching from the Swiss frontier to the English Channel.
2. An underground network linked bunkers, communications trenches, and gun emplacements.
3. There, millions of soldiers roasted under the broiling summer sun or froze through the long winters.
B. Other European Fronts
1. In August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany.
Then, at the battle of Tannenberg, they suffered one of the worst defeats of the war.
3. After Tannenberg, armies in the east fought on Russian soil.
C. The War Beyond Europe
1. World War I was a global conflict even though most of the fighting took
place in Europe.
2. The Ottoman
empire joined the Central Powers in 1914.
3. In January 1916, after 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies finally withdrew from the Dardanelles.
IV. Winning the War
A. Effects of the Stalemate
1. Governments raised taxes and borrowed huge amounts
of money to pay the costs of war.
war meant controlling public opinion.
Allied propaganda often played up Germany’s invasion of Belgium as a barbarous act.
B. Women at War
As millions of men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national economics going.
2. Military nurses shared the dangers of the men whose wounds they tended.
3. War work gave women a new sense of pride and
C. Collapsing Morale
1. The morale of both troops and civilians had plunged by 1917.
2. As morale collapsed, troops mutinied in some French units.
3. In Italy, many soldiers deserted after the defeat
D. The United States Declares War
1. Another event altered the balance of forces soon after the Russian Revolution
2. One major reason why the
United States exchanged neutrality for war was because of the German submarine attacks on merchant and passenger ships carrying
3. A German submarine
torpedoed the British liner Lusitania in May 1915.
E. Campaign to
1. The Germans launched
a huge offensive that pushed the Allies back 40 miles in March.
2. The German people showed their monarch their frustration as uprising exploded among hungry
3. The Great War
cam to an end on November 11, 1918 at 11 AM.
V. Making the Peace
A. The Costs of War
1. The human and material costs of the war were staggering.
2. More than 8.5 million people were dead. Double that number had been wounded, many handicapped
3. Famine threatened many
B. The Paris Peace Conference
1. Woodrow Wilson was one of three strong personalities who dominated the Paris Peace Conference.
2. A dedicated reformer, Wilson was so sure of his
rightness that he could be hard to work with.
3. The British prime minister, David Lloyd George, knew that the British people demanded harsh treatment for Germany.
C. The Treaty of Versailles
1. In June 1919, the peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German Republic to the palace of Versailles
2. The Germans were
ordered to sign the treaty drawn up by the Allies.
3. The German delegates read the document with growing horror.
D. Other Settlements
1. The leaders at Paris applied the principle of self-determination only to parts of Europe.
2. The treaties created a system of mandates.
3. A mandate is a territory that is administered by western power.
E. Hopes for Global Peace
1. The Paris Peace Conference offered one beacon of hope in the League of Nations.
2. In the aftermath of the war, millions of people looked to the league to
ensure the peace.
3. More than 40
nations joined the league and agreed to negotiate disputes rather than resort to war.